Toulmin’s model of argumentation

Stephen Toulmin has developed a model for how arguments are constructed. Toulmin’s model is good for analyzing simple arguments. It is therefore good for analyzing opinions in TV interviews, advertisements,

The concepts of discourse analysis

Discourse analysis must uncover the discourse of a text – the way a text mentions, articulates and understands a concept, a phenomenon, an event. It may well be that a


The philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE) formulated three forms of appeal which he believed rhetoricians could use in their attempt to convince his recipient. These three classic forms of appeal have

The structure of the argumentative essay

Argumentation basically consists of an assertion and evidence. One claim is what the sender is seeking to convince the recipient. The claim is substantiated by a coating. The evidence is